Plynutie roka v slovenskom jazykovom obraze sveta

Plynutie roka v slovenskom jazykovom obraze sveta
Typ publikácieVedecká monografia
Rok vydania2013
VydavateľstvoVydavateľstvo Belianum, Univerzita Mateja Bela, Banská Bystrica
Autor (podľa obálky)ČULENOVÁ Eva
Autori z UMBČulenová Eva, PaedDr., PhD.
Počet strán230
Monografia Plynutie roka v slovenskom JOS predstavuje jeden z prvých pokusov prezentovať výsledky výskumu vnímania, recepcie a chápania času zo strany slovenského národa. Vychádza zo Sapir-Whorfovej hypotézy o jedinečnosti a autonómnosti kultúry každého národa, ktorá je závislá najmä na klimaticko-geografických, ale aj historicko-sociálnych podmienkach. Autorka si za materiál výskumu zvolila slovenský idiomatický korpus (pranostiky) a na základe neho vyslovuje čiastkové výsledky sledovania psychologického profilu slovenského národa.

Monografia pozostáva z dvoch častí, ďalej členených do 6 kapitol. V nich sa postupne rozoberajú filozoficko-teoretické východiská determinovanosti človeka a kultúry, pojem jOS, pokračuje sa priblížením geograficko-klimatických a sociálno-historických podmienok Slovenska, až k základnému výskumu slovenských pransotík týkajúcich sa jednotlivých ročných období. V poslednej kapitole sú vyrieknuté závery týkajúce sa časti psychologického profilu slovenského národa.

Scholarly monograph A Year Passing in the Slovak Linguistic Picture of the World is one of the first attempts to comprehensively examine, evaluate and generalise extensive issue of linguistic picture of the world as the research subject.  This issue is not a new one; the notion Weltansicht appeared in Wilhelm von Humboldt works founded on the hypothesis that there is multiplicity of human tongues based on the multiplicity (i.e. different perception) of the world. At the turn of 19th and 20th centuries, American anthropologists, particularly Franz Boas and his disciples, picked up the threads of Humboldt’s idea and tried to prove that the ideology until then believed, that there had been a single world culture with separate stages starting from primitive (tribal communities) to the most developed (European culture), is unjustified, and, on the contrary, every cultural expression is unique, autonomous, with specific features coming from geo-climatic and natural conditions and within cultural patterns of society. These ideas were transformed into the issue of linguistic relativism (by Edward Sapir, Benjamin Lee Whorf) based on the thesis that the language of every community, like their cultures, is different (it referred to the term “conceptualisation of the world). These theses referred to as the fundament for many other research activities within sociology, behaviourism, cultural studies in the USA and United Kingdom, later they were spread to Eastern Europe and Russia where they developed into research on semantic lexicology and the linguistic picture of the world (yazikovaya kartina mira or naivnaya model mira) in the middle of the 20th century.  These issues are still the core of research in Russia. In the eighties of the 20th century, the linguists from Lublin in Poland focused on the linguistic picture of the world and elaborately developed methodological  basis, designed, and thus entrenched the issue of the linguistic picture of the world in Central Europe. (J. Bartmiński). At the early nineties of the 20th century the issue met response even in the Czech Republic (works by I. Vaňkova et al.) where it became a part of teaching process at several universities. The linguistic picture of the world has not attracted sufficient attention and that is one of the reasons for the creation of this monograph.

The focus of this work is to reveal the foundations of Slovak group’s world view.  The focus is mainly on the concept and perception of one of the fundamental ontological categories, i.e. the time which, in our climatic conditions, substantially manifest itself in the form of a passing year, namely as four seasons of the year. It is assumed that the geo-climatic natural conditions are the building blocks for Slovak picture of the world.  After uncovering the concept and perception of this phenomenon, it is possible, at least in part, to present the concept of natural and social environment, oneself and the place people stand for in one’s vicinity. The features of the linguistic picture of the world reflect most evidently and authentically in folk literature. As the focus is on the time and its manifestation in nature and its interpretation in mind (and in the language) provided by a man, Slovak weather lore as statements presenting folk wisdom referring to the changes in the weather and nature and weather forecasts are the most appropriate research material. They manifest the concept of time/year passing, nature and the place of a man within all this.

The basis as well as the target conception was the question of whether the primary inducement to all human activities and human biological and natural essence or man act primarily affect the society. The research on perception and concept of time (year) passing reflected in Slovak national consciousness partly helped to answer that question.

            The structure of the monograph was adapted to that goal, and it is divided into two parts – The Interpretation of the World in the Mind of a Man and A Year Passing in the Slovak Linguistic Picture of the World. The first part includes the chapters on theoretical basis of the issue referred to as linguistic relativism and the interpretation of the world in the mind of a man (Chapter 1),  presents in detail the ideological bases of the research based on the above mentioned fundamental question (Chapter 2) and introduces theoretical basis of the linguistic picture of the world reflected in global concepts (Chapter 3). The second part focuses on the introduction of Slovak group embedded in a specific geo-climatic environment, natural conditions, not to forget social determinants of Slovak world-view, as well as the process of settlement associated with the history of the Slovaks and religion (Chapter 4). Next, the perception and concept of four seasons of the year in Slovak collective consciousness follows mostly based on Slovak mythological concepts. Regarding those analyses, the main focus is on the content and linguistic analysis of Slovak weather lore that revealed quite large amounts of information about Slovak linguistic picture of a year passing (Chapter 5); the content of weather lore disclosed three main ideological lines: weather concept or rainfall, the concept of land and a man. It emerged that the weather refers to as main active agent in Slovak weather lore and all life in the world, land and even people adjust to it. A man in Slovak linguistic picture (weather lore) referred to as active, not a passive factor, however fully dependent on nature and her elements, realises the power of nature and his place. There is no effort to fight or beat her, there is the will to adapt and act with the aim to ensure living from the land – enough to survive, the emotions are suppressed and rational, mostly constructive approach to all yearly cycles prevails. Thus, a Slovak in the Slovak linguistic picture of the world lives life the natural way in harmony with nature. The land is man’s basic property and represents the element providing living, however under the condition of being active, and under good weather conditions and adequate state of nature. Compared to weather and a man, nature refers to as relatively passive element that should be looked after and develops only under man’s influence (or weather). However, nature is highly prized by man and represents the core of man’s activity.

Slovak man took this attitude after long-time observation of the seasons:

Spring was conceived as a period when nature awakes and the vegetation prepares to grow. Nice weather was not referred to as lovely, sunny, warm and dry weather but the weather appropriate to the region of Slovakia, i.e. adequate spring weather, acceptable weather with relatively appropriate amount of rainfall, sunlight, moderate or no wind, temperatures adequate for given month – not too cold and to hot.

Summer in the Slovak linguistic picture of the world is referred as the main growing season when enough food is provided and stored for winter. That is the reason why it was the most important season for the life of Slovak man. Thus, nice summer weather does not refer to hot and dry weather but to warm weather with adequate amount of rainfall sufficient for the plant growing in the given area. Summer starts on the day of summer solstice (21st July) accompanied by the joy at upcoming period of wealth. The end of summer is, in turn, presented in the language as the period of harvest collecting.

Autumn in the Slovak linguistic picture of the world is referred to as the period of upcoming cold, coolness, frost, with frequent rainfall that is often feared of. In this regard, the autumn is associated with the termination of work in fields outside in nature and moving to shelters. However, autumn is not seen as something negative or repulsive, it is considered as natural state of nature that shall be accepted and not fought against.

Winter in the Slovak linguistic picture of the world is seen as other season, as one of the natural cycles of the year, as a natural and inevitable state of nature, without which natural cycle of nature (and land) development would be disturbed. No attempt to fight against winter occurred.

Slovak weather lore suggests that primary inducement for man to act was to satisfy the need for food (and water), thus basic biological needs necessary to survive.

As it turned out, the Slovaks understand/understood the time as a layered phenomenon, not as a phenomenon passing in line on an imaginary axis (it can be seen, especially in grammar, in form of verbal aspects, not in form of compound tenses, and weather lore): the period before the past is followed by the past, present time is locked onto the past and the future onto the present time and it is considered to be one of the time layers in the Slovak language. Setting the time in layers in Slovak concept refers to as 1) the existence of three or four “layers” of time mentioned before; 2) existence of verbal aspects in the Slovak language and the absence of compound tenses such as in Semitic or Roman languages, in English, etc. Other languages deal with this phenomenon in form of compound verb tenses, i.e. the activity is associated with an axis, linearity. The time passing, expressed in other languages within the timeline by means of specific verb forms, is expressed by means of specific words, phrases of structures in the Slovak (as in other Slavic languages).  Compound verb tense system is referred to and “seen” on a timeline, however the system of verbal aspects used in the Slovak and other Slavic languages is difficult to see that way and it is connected to above mentioned layers as a verbal aspect is semantically connected to (im)perfective verb aspect of activity/state being conveyed within a specific layer. 3) Setting the time in layers in Slovak (Slavic) concept can be also seen in old classification of seasons. Peoples living in different climatic conditions, e.g. do not experience two cold and two warm seasons with respective sub-periods during which the country changes dramatically, they experience only two later specified periods with different character, for example a dry season and  rainy season.  

On the basis of acquired knowledge it is possible to say that man is primary bio-natural creature dependent on nature, natural elements, on geo-climatic conditions and on the basis of that perception he understands and assesses the world around him. It is the core of his mentality, way of thinking and the perception of world around him, it reflects in the way he behaves and acts, the source of his history – experiences of his community and social hierarchy. The bio-natural essence of a man is mounted up with cultural and social layers.


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